Instructions for Authors
Aims and Access: Medical Science Monitor is published continually as an electronic journal. This is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original articles in basic medical research, clinical research, and biomedical disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and medical technology.
Indexing: Journal Citation Reports (JCR)/Clarivate, Web of Science (Clinical Medicine), SCI-Expanded, NLM/PubMed and PubMed Central, Index Medicus/MEDLINE, CiteScore in SCOPUS, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), BIOSIS Previews, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), BIOBASE, and Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP).
Ethical Approval for Original Research Articles: All original research articles require completion and submission of an authorized institutional Ethics Committee approval form or Institutional Review Board (IRB) form, or independent Ethics Committee (IEC) form, or Ethical Review Board (ERB) form, or Research Ethics Board (REB) form.
Research Involving Human Subjects: All studies involving human participants must be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained for all human study participants. The Editors may request written evidence that informed consent has been obtained.
Patient Confidentiality: Data analysis, the presentation of results, and figure images should not include confidential details that breach patient confidentiality. If data from deceased individuals is used in research studies, the legal representative or next-of-kin should provide written informed consent.
Research Involving Experimental Animals: All animal studies should be conducted according to local and international guidelines for animal care and welfare and the use of humane methods of euthanasia. Submission of an authorized Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) form is required for all animal studies. Please upload this form to the Medical Science Monitor system with your submission files. Manuscripts without the required IACUC form will not be considered for publication. If the IACUC approval is in a language other than English, please submit an English translation, signed by the Corresponding Author, in addition to the original authorization form.
Requirements of the Corresponding Author: One Corresponding Author should provide their full name, institutional address, e-mail address, and telephone number. The Corresponding Author has primary responsibility for communication with the Editorial Office during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. The Corresponding Author is required to provide all details of authorship, ethics committee approvals, conflicts of interest forms and statements, and other supporting documents required by the Editorial Office. The Corresponding Author must be available throughout the entire process and respond to Editorial queries promptly. The Corresponding Author is required to communicate with all authors at each stage of the publication process. The Corresponding Author must confirm that the study was conducted ethically and submit all ethical approval forms.
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the copying or duplicating of previously published written content and is considered as research fraud and a breach of publication copyright. Therefore, all manuscripts undergo electronic scanning by several methods at all stages of manuscript submission, peer review, and revision. If the authors have previously published a study as an Abstract from a meeting presentation, they are requested to declare this. Self-plagiarism from previous publications, including an Abstract, is unacceptable, and all content should be re-written and not copied. Plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, detected at any stage, will result in rejection of the manuscript, and all paid processing fees will be forfeit.
Preprint Publication Services: Medical Science Monitor is not associated with preprint publication services. Previous publications of manuscripts in preprint form that are then submitted to Medical Science Monitor will be regarded as non-original and will be rejected.
Conflict of Interest: When submitting a manuscript, all authors should disclose any commercial or financial interests they may have with a study, a product, or a medical device.
Permissions and Copyright Approvals for the Use of Figures, Data, and Personal Communications: The use of previously published images, diagrams, tables, and data requires written copyright permission from the original publisher. It is the duty of the authors to obtain copyright permission to duplicate any previously published content. The use of unpublished personal communications should be accompanied by a written statement from the source that allows the communication to be published in Medical Science Monitor.
Open Access under a Creative Commons License: Medical Science Monitor has adopted the Open Access publishing model. All publications are under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No-Derivatives 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). A Creative Commons License allows others to download and share articles only if they acknowledge the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
Disclaimer: Every effort is made by the Publisher and the Editorial Board to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions, or statements appear in the Medical Science Monitor. However, the data and opinions appearing in the publications are the responsibility of the authors and their institutions. Accordingly, the Publisher and Editorial Board of Medical Science Monitor accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, or statement. Readers of Medical Science Monitor are advised that drug doses, drug regimens, and any medical treatments that form part of a published study should not replace current local or national clinical guidelines or prescribing recommendations.
The Editorial Board of Medical Science Monitor considers original articles in basic biomedical sciences, clinical medicine, and related disciplines.
The categories of original manuscripts include:
All submitted manuscripts undergo peer review by external experts in all disciplines.
An original manuscript should be submitted that has never previously been published, in whole or in part, in print or electronically. The Title, Abstract, main manuscript, Figures, and Tables should all be original. The Journal discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study.
Submission of Original Data (Raw Data): The Editors of Medical Science Monitor may request submission of original study data (raw data) to support Research Articles.
Original Figure Images: The Editors of Medical Science Monitor may request an author Statement of Originality of Submitted Figure Images.
The following original articles are considered for publication by Medical Science Monitor:
The following topics are considered for publication in Research Articles, Review Articles, or Editorials: Laboratory and in vitro studies; laboratory medicine; animal studies; animal models; molecular biology; drug discovery and development; biotechnology; epidemiology and population studies; observational clinical studies; retrospective and prospective clinical studies; development of laboratory methods and diagnostics; medical imaging studies.
Original Research Articles aim to describe a research study on a topic that is published by Medical Science Monitor. The manuscript should be formatted according to the template provided in Word and should include: Title Page, a structured Abstract (≤250 words), Keywords using terms from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used for indexing articles for PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/), Background., Material/Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, References, and Acknowledgments. Original Tables and Figures should be included at the end of the manuscript. References should be formatted according to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, which is the same format used by PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: These manuscripts should be prepared as Research Articles and require systematic (or complete) literature searches and meta-analysis undertaken by experienced medical statisticians.
Medical Science Monitor will only consider manuscripts that have been conducted according to the mandatory Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 and reported using the PRISMA checklist (http://www.prisma-statement.org/PRISMAStatement/Checklist).
See: - Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. PLoS Medicine 2021;18(3):e1003583. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003583
Network meta-analysis should be conducted and reported according to the PRISMA-NMA extension (http://www.prisma-statement.org/Extensions/NetworkMetaAnalysis).
The study protocol for all submitted manuscripts should be registered and approved in advance by the international database of Prospectively Registered Systematic Reviews in Health and Social Care (PROSPERO). All submitted manuscripts should contain the PROSPERO registration number (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
A PRISMA-style study flow diagram of the study design should be included as a Figure or supplement.
Original Review Articles should be on a topic within the author's expertise. Review Articles should aim to inform, educate, or update the reader. A Review Article should be supported by recent, relevant, and accessible references. A Review Article should be formatted to include: Title Page, an unstructured Abstract (≤250 words), Keywords (MeSH), Introduction, topic section headings, Conclusions, References, and Acknowledgments. Original Tables and Figures should be included at the end of the manuscript. References should be formatted according to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, which is the same format used by PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
Medical Science Monitor Editorials are short reviews of less than 2,000 words, which present an update on current topics of interest, including new clinical guidelines, newly identified clinical conditions, and new approvals of diagnostics and therapies. An Editorial aims to concisely present a current topic of interest, supported by the most recent references. An Editorial should be formatted to include: Title Page, an unstructured Abstract (≤250 words), Keywords (MeSH), Editorial, Conclusions, and References. References should be formatted according to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, which is the same format used by PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
Please note that Letters to the Editor and Case Reports are no longer considered for publication by Medical Science Monitor. All Case Report submissions will be automatically redirected to the American Journal of Case Reports (https://www.amjcaserep.com).
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations:
Manuscripts for submission to Medical Science Monitor should be prepared in accordance with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, 2019 (http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf).
Manuscripts should be written clearly in American English.
The text should be written using 1.5 line spacing and 12-point font. (Times New Roman, Times, or Palatino).
Page margins should be 2.5 cm (1 inch) at the top, bottom, right, and left.
The manuscript should include the following content beginning on a separate page: Title Page, Abstract and Keyword Page, Text Pages, References, Tables, and Figures.
Medical Science Monitor provides a manuscript template in Word (See Section 9).
The ICMJE provides clear criteria for who should be an author (http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). An author is someone who has made a substantial contribution to the conduct of the study and the manuscript, who has contributed to the study analysis, and who agrees to be accountable for the study.
Please carefully consider the list of authors before submitting the manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of manuscript submission.
Any changes to the list of authors should be made before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Editor.
All authors should agree to be named before the manuscript is submitted for publication.
Supporting Ethical Documents:
All research studies require completion and submission of an authorized institutional Ethics Committee approval form, or Institutional Review Board (IRB) form, or independent Ethics Committee (IEC) form, or Ethical Review Board (ERB) form, or Research Ethics Board (REB) form. If the Ethics Committee/IRB approval form is in a language other than English, please submit an English translation, signed by the Corresponding Author, in addition to the original authorization form.
Informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained for all human study participants. The Editors may request written evidence that informed consent has been obtained.
Submission of an authorized Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) form is required for all animal studies. If the IACUC approval is in a language other than English, please submit an English translation, signed by the Corresponding Author, in addition to the original authorization form.
Please upload the required ethical approval forms to the Medical Science Monitor system with your submission files.
Manuscripts without the required ethical approval forms will not be considered for publication.
The manuscript should include:
The Title Page should include the following information:
Full manuscript Title (which should be clear and descriptive, each word should begin with a capital letter, and abbreviations should be written in full)
Full names of all authors.
Affiliations of the authors.
Name of the department and institution in which the work was done.
Full name and address of the Corresponding Author, with telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.
Source(s) of financial support in the form of grants (quote the grant number).
Conflict of interest statement.
A structured Abstract should be submitted that is no more than 250 words in length and includes the following subheadings:
Background: The Background subsection of the Abstract should include a sentence that describes the aims of the study, and the aims should also be given at the end of the main Background section.
Material and Methods: The Materials and Methods subsection of the Abstract should summarise the study size and main methods used.
Results: The Results subsection of the Abstract should summarise the most important results.
Conclusions: The Conclusions subsection of the Abstract should summarize the main conclusions from the study in one or two sentences.
Each Abstract subsection should begin in a new line.
All abbreviations should be defined when first used in the Abstract.
Review Articles and Editorials:
A unstructured Abstract as a single paragraph of no more than 250 words in length should be submitted. The Abstract should contain a brief statement of the background to the topic, followed by a sentence that reflects each of the main sections of the Review or Editorial. It should end with a sentence on the aims of the Review or Editorial.
For Review Articles, the aims of the review should also be clearly given at the end of the main Introduction section.
All abbreviations should be defined when first used in the Abstract.
Keywords: A list of 3 to 6 words or phrases should be written at the end of the Abstract using terms from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), which are used for indexing articles for PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/).
Please Note: Publications are searched and cited based on the content of the manuscript Title, Abstract, and Keywords, so authors are encouraged to make these as clear, accurate, and informative as possible.
Text Pages for Research Articles
All abbreviations should be defined when first used in the text of the main manuscript.
The written text of the Research Article should be divided using the following section headings:
Background: This section should contain the scientific rationale for the study and should end with a statement of the aims of the study. Each statement of fact should be supported by references. All supporting references should be recent, relevant, and should be accessible to readers of Medical Science Monitor.
Material and Methods: This section should be divided into subsections, with headings beginning with the Ethical statement, and ending with the Statistical analysis.
Information on approval by a Local Ethics Committee should be provided. Studies on patients and volunteers require informed consent documented.
The content of this section should clearly describe the selection of observational or experimental subjects, including controls, demographic and clinical data, inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomization, and the use of controls.
Please include details of the power analysis used to determine the study size.
The data acquisition protocol, procedures, investigated parameters, methods of measurements, and apparatus should be described in sufficient detail to allow other scientists to reproduce the results.
Sources for all reagents and equipment should be given (Company, City, Country).
References and a brief description should be provided for methods that have been published but are not well known. New or substantially modified methods should be described in detail. Chemical reagents should be clearly identified. Drugs should include the generic name, dose, and route of administration.
The statistical methods should be described in detail to enable verification of the reported results.
Results: This section should be divided into subsections with headings. Restrict tables and figures to the number needed to explain and support the results. Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. The results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat data from the tables or graphs in the text. Please provide statistical support for 'significant' results (such as a p-value).
Discussion: This section should not be divided into headed subsections but should be organized clearly with concise paragraphs, beginning with a summary and interpretation of the study findings. Please do not duplicate the content of the main Background or Results sections in the Discussion section. The findings from the study should be compared with findings from previously published studies. Discuss the implications of the findings and suggest future studies.
A mandatory requirement for all original Research Articles is the inclusion of a paragraph at the end of the Discussion section that clearly describes the limitations of the study. The purpose of this is to show insight into the limitations of the study methods and data analysis and interpretation and to ensure that conclusions and recommendations from the study are based on evidence and are not excessive or inappropriate.
Conclusions: A concise and clear short paragraph should match the conclusions given at the end of the Abstract. Please avoid giving statements and conclusions that are not completely supported by the results of the study.
Acknowledgments: Please list all contributors who do not meet the ICMJE criteria for authorship, such as technical assistants, writing assistants, or heads of departments who provided general support. Financial and other material support should be disclosed and acknowledged.
The Reference list should be numbered sequentially as the references are cited in the text
Please note that unpublished observations, personal communications, publications in submission, and Abstracts should not be used as references in original Research Articles. If essential, such material may be incorporated in the appropriate place in the text. All references should be recent, relevant, and accessible to readers of Medical Science Monitor.
In-text citation numbering: Please number the references sequentially using square brackets before the punctuation mark . Do not use superscripts.
References in tables and figures: References first cited in tables or figure legends must be numbered so that they will be in sequence with references cited in the text.
Reference style and formatting: The use of reference management software, such as EndNote, is acceptable. However, authors will find it easier and more accurate to submit the final Reference list in Word, as this allows for changes and corrections following peer review. References should be formatted according to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, which is the same format used by PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Please note the required journal abbreviations in the references are those used by PubMed.
Please list all authors when there are six or fewer. When there are more than three authors, list the first three, followed by et al.
Examples of Reference Formatting:
Standard journal article: Lahita R, Kluger J, Drayer DE, et al. Antibodies to nuclear antigens in patients treated with procainamide or acetylprocainamide. N Engl J Med 1979;301:1382-5
Article in electronic form: Drayer DE, Koffler D. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1995 Jan-Mar. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm
Article, no author given: Cancer in South Africa [Editorial]. S Afr Med J 1994;84:15
Book, personal author(s): Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology And Leadership Skills For Nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996
Book, editor(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental Health Care For Elderly People. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996
Book, Organization as author and publisher: Institute of Medicine (US). Looking At The Future Of The Medicaid Program. Washington: The Institute; 1992
Chapter in a book: Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and Stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78
Conference proceedings: Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent Advances in Clinical Neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996
Conference paper: Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of Data Protection, Privacy and Security in Medical Informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland
Article with a published erratum: Koffler D, Reidenberg MM. Antibodies to nuclear antigens in patients treated with procainamide or acetylprocainamide [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1979;302:322-5]. N Engl J Med 1979;301:1382-5
Tables and Figure legends should be added at the end of the main manuscript, after the Reference list.
Tables: Tables should be numbered (Arabic numerals) consecutively according to the order in which they were first cited in the text. Tables should be written in Word and included at the end of the manuscript, on a separate page. Do not submit tables as PDF or other images. Each table should have a clear and descriptive title, written in sentence format. All abbreviations and explanations of any annotations should be defined in a footnote to each table. Name table files consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. For footnotes, use the following symbols in this sequence: *, **, ***. Please identify statistical variations such as standard deviation (SD) and standard error of the mean (SEM). Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain copyright permission from the publisher and fully acknowledge the original source.
Figure legends: The written content of the figure legends should be included at the end of the main manuscript, after the Reference list. Figures should be numbered (Arabic numerals) consecutively according to the order in which they were first cited in the text. It is important that the content of the figures may be understood by the reader when viewed individually and separately from the main manuscript. Therefore, each figure requires a clear and descriptive title and a clear and detailed legend. All abbreviations should be defined when first mentioned in each Figure legend. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. If the figures are professionally prepared for the authors or prepared using image software, these details should be included in each figure legend.
Photographic figure images: If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable, or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph. Photographs should be color or black and white, saved in separate files, with numbers and descriptions at a preferred resolution of 300 dpi, in the following formats: jpeg or tiff.
Photomicrographs of light microscopy and electron microscopy: Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Please include and explain any magnification scale bars used in photomicrographs of electron microscopy images. Light microscopy images should include a description of the histochemical stain used and the magnification in the Figure legend. For example: Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Magnification x 60.
Figure annotations: Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and even throughout and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication, each item will still be legible.
Figure submission: Figure images should each be submitted in a separate file at a preferred resolution of 300 dpi, in the following formats: jpeg, tiff, eps, psd, or pdf.
Figure image originality: All figure images should be original and not previously published. Medical Science Monitor has a strict and absolute policy for originality and authenticity of all research content. Figure images will be specifically scrutinized to ensure their authenticity and originality.
Copyright permission to use previously published images: If an author wishes to use a figure image that has been previously published, written copyright permission should be obtained from the original publisher in advance of manuscript submission toMedical Science Monitor. Written proof of permission to reproduce any previously published image should be included on manuscript submission. The Figure legend should include details of copyright permission and the source of the duplicated image. Copyright permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher, except for documents in the public domain.
Units of measurement: Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units - meter (m), kilogram (kg), or liter (L) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius (°C). Blood pressures should be given in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). All hematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (ISI). Alternative or non-ISI units should be added in parenthesis.
Abbreviations and symbols: Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the Title and Abstract. Please define all abbreviations when first used in the Abstract and main manuscript and each Figure legend and table.
Submitted manuscripts are evaluated if they present new insights to the investigated topic and are likely to contribute to changes or advances in research and clinical practice or the understanding of disease processes. All authors listed in a manuscript are assumed to have agreed to its submission. The Corresponding Author is responsible for ensuring that all submission requirements are fulfilled. The Editors of Medical Science Monitor first examine the received manuscripts. Manuscripts that do not meet the criteria for publication are rejected. Incomplete submissions or manuscripts not prepared in the advised style will not be sent for peer-review until the correct and complete submission has been provided. The authors are given a reference number upon manuscript registration at the Editorial Office. The registered manuscripts are sent for independent peer review. We encourage authors to suggest the names of possible reviewers, but we reserve the right of final Reviewer selection. Submitted papers are accepted for publication after a positive recommendation from the independent Reviewers. Following recommendations for revision, the Authors should return a corrected paper within 1–6 weeks, depending on the recommendations given. The manuscript evaluation process usually takes between one and two months.
Please Note: Fabrication or manipulation of the peer-review process by providing false names or contact information to the recommended Reviewers that is detected at any stage will result in rejection of the manuscript, with all paid processing fees being forfeited.
Plagiarism is the copying or duplicating of previously published written content and is considered as research fraud and a breach of publication copyright. Therefore, all manuscripts undergo electronic scanning by several methods at all stages of manuscript submission, peer review, and revision. If the authors have previously published a study as an Abstract from a meeting presentation, they are requested to declare this. Self-plagiarism from previous publications, including an Abstract, is unacceptable, and all content should be re-written and not copied. Plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, that is detected at any stage will result in rejection of the manuscript and all paid processing fees will be forfeited.
Medical Science Monitor uses the Open Access publishing model in which all published articles are freely available to readers directly from the Journal's website and PubMed, and PubMed Central. However, this publishing model depends on author fees. The submission of a manuscript and the peer-review process are free of charge.
The article processing fee applies only to manuscripts accepted for publication. Online credit card payment is our preferred method of payment. We also accept bank checks and wire transfers. The payment instructions will be provided after a manuscript has been accepted for publication.
The Article Processing Fee is USD 2800
The estimated processing time is between 25 and 28 weeks, depending on the length of the peer review process, the time required for manuscript correction by authors, speed of response to galley proof acceptance, your institution's payment procedures, and the number of manuscripts awaiting publication.
Please note: Detection of written plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, or fabrication of copying of images, or fabrication of the conduct of the study or manuscript, providing false author names or contact information that is detected at any stage will result in rejection of the manuscript and forfeit of all paid article processing fees.
The Editors of the Medical Science Monitor accept only electronic submissions via the Authors’ Service available on the Journal's website. Please register first if this is your first submission to the Journal, enabling efficient communication with the Editors, monitoring manuscript status, re-submission of corrected files, and payment of fees. Please follow the instructions on the Journal's website.
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